Aluminum anodes mounted on a steel jacket structure.

Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.[1] The simplest method to apply CP is by connecting the metal to be protected with another more easily corroded metal to act as the anode of the electrochemical cell. Cathodic protection systems are used to protect a wide range of metallic structures in various environments. Common applications are; steel water or fuel pipelines and storage tanks; steel pier piles; ships and boats; offshore oil platforms and onshore oil well casings and metal reinforcement bars in concrete buildings and structures.

Cathodic protection can, in some cases, prevent stress corrosion cracking.


Cathodic protection was first described by Sir Humphry Davy in a series of papers presented to the Royal Society[2] in London in 1824. After a series of tests, the first application was to the HMS Samarang[3] in 1824. Sacrificial anodes made from iron were attached to the copper sheath of the hull below the waterline and dramatically reduced the corrosion rate of the copper. However, a side effect of the CP was to increase marine growth. Copper, when corroding, releases copper ions which have an anti-fouling effect. Since excess marine growth affected the performance of the ship, the Royal Navy decided that it was better to allow the copper to corrode and have the benefit of reduced marine growth, so CP was not used further.

Davy was assisted in his experiments by his pupil Michael Faraday, who continued his research after Davy's death. In 1834, he discovered the quantitative connection between corrosion weight loss and electric current and thus laid the foundation for the future application of cathodic protection.[4]

Thomas Edison experimented with impressed current cathodic protection on ships in 1890, but was unsuccessful due to the lack of a suitable current source and anode materials. It would be 100 years after Davy's experiment before cathodic protection was used widely on oil pipelines in the United States [5]


Galvanic CP

Galvanic anodes are designed and selected to have a more "active" voltage (more negative electrochemical potential) than the metal of the structure (typically steel). For effective CP, the potential of the steel surface is polarized (pushed) more negative until the surface has a uniform potential. At that stage, the driving force for the corrosion reaction is removed. The galvanic anode continues to corrode, consuming the anode material until eventually it must be replaced. The polarization is caused by the electron flow from the anode to the cathode. The driving force for the CP current is the difference in electrochemical potential between the anode and the cathode.[6]

Galvanic or sacrificial anodes are made in various shapes and sizes using alloys of zinc, magnesium and aluminum. ASTM International publishes standards on the composition and manufacturing of galvanic anodes.[7][8]

In order for galvanic cathodic protection to work, the anode must possess a lower (that is, more negative) potential than that of the cathode (the structure to be protected). The table below shows a simplified galvanic series to show which metals can thus be combined.[9]

Metal Potential with respect to a Cu:CuSO4

reference electrode in neutral pH environment (volts)

Carbon, Graphite, Coke +0.3
Platinum 0 to -0.1
Mill scale on Steel -0.2
High Silicon Cast Iron -0.2
Copper, brass, bronze -0.2
Mild steel in concrete -0.2
Lead -0.5
Cast iron (not graphitized) -0.5
Mild steel (rusted) -0.2 to -0.5
Mild steel (clean) -0.5 to -0.8
Commercially pure aluminum -0.8
Aluminum alloy (5% zinc) -1.05
Zinc -1.1
Magnesium Alloy (6% Al, 3% Zn, 0.15% Mn) -1.6
Commercially Pure Magnesium -1.75

Impressed current CP

For larger structures, galvanic anodes cannot deliver economically enough current to provide complete protection. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems use anodes connected to a DC power source. Usually this will be a cathodic protection rectifier, which converts an AC power supply to a DC output. In the absence of an AC supply, alternative power sources may be used, such as solar panels, wind power or gas powered thermoelectric generators[10][11]

Anodes for ICCP systems are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Common anodes are tubular and solid rod shapes or continuous ribbons of various materials. These include high silicon cast iron, graphite, mixed metal oxide, platinum and niobium coated wire and others.



An air cooled cathodic protection rectifier connected to a pipeline.

Pipelines are routinely protected by a coating supplemented with cathodic protection. An ICCP system for a pipeline would consist of a DC power source, which is often an AC powered rectifier and an anode, or array of anodes buried in the ground (the anode groundbed).

The DC power source would typically have a DC output of between 10 and 50 amperes and 50 volts, but this depends on several factors, such as the size of the pipeline. The positive DC output terminal would be connected via cables to the anode array, while another cable would connect the negative terminal of the rectifier to the pipeline, preferably through junction boxes to allow measurements to be taken.[12]

Anodes can be installed in a vertical hole and backfilled with conductive coke (a material that improves the performance and life of the anodes) or laid in a prepared trench, surrounded by conductive coke and backfilled. The choice of grounded type and size depends on the application, location and soil resistivity.[13]

The output of the DC source would then be adjusted to the optimum level after conducting various tests including measurements of electrochemical potential.

It is sometimes more economically viable to protect a pipeline using galvanic anodes. This is often the case on smaller diameter pipelines of limited length.[14]


Cathodic protection on ships is often implemented by galvanic anodes attached to the hull, rather than using ICCP. Since ships are regularly removed from the water for inspections and maintenance, it is a simple task to replace the galvanic anodes.[15]

Galvanic anodes are generally shaped to reduced drag in the water and fitted flush to the hull to also try to minimize drag.[16]

Smaller vessels, with non-metallic hulls, such as yachts, will also use galvanic anodes to protect areas such as the rudder, but depend on an electrical connection between the anode and the item to be protected.

For ICCP on ships, a DC power supply is provided within the ship and the anodes mounted on the outside of the hull. The anode cables are introduced into the ship via a compression seal fitting and routed to the DC power source. The negative cable from the power supply is simply attached to the hull to complete the circuit. Ship ICCP anodes are flush-mounted, minimizing the effects of drag on the ship, and located a minimum 5 ft below the light load line[17] in an area to avoid mechanical damage. The current density required for protection is a function of velocity and considered when selecting the current capacity and location of anode placement on the hull.

Some ships may require specialist treatment, for example aluminum hulls with steel fixtures will create an electrochemical cell where the aluminum hull can act as a galvanic anode and corrosion is enhanced. In cases like this, aluminum or zinc galvanic anodes can be used to offset the potential difference between the aluminum hull and the steel fixture.[18] If the steel fixtures are large, several galvanic anodes may be required, or even a small ICCP system.


Marine CP covers many areas, jetties, harbors, offshore structures. The variety of different types of structure leads to a variety of systems to provide protection. Typically, galvanic anodes are favored,[19] but ICCP can also often be used.

Steel in Concrete

The application to concrete reinforcement is slightly different in that the anodes and reference electrodes are usually embedded in the concrete at the time of construction when the concrete is being poured. The usual technique for concrete buildings, bridges and similar structures is to use ICCP,[20] but there are systems available that use the principle of galvanic CP as well,[21][22][23] although in the UK at least, the use of galvanic anodes for atmospherically exposed reinforced concrete structures is considered experimental.[24]

For ICCP, the principle is the same as any other ICCP system. However, in a typical atmospherically exposed concrete structure such as a bridge, there will be many more anodes distributed through the structure as opposed to an array of anodes as used on a pipeline. This makes for a more complicated system and usually an automatically controlled DC power source is used, possibly with an option for remote monitoring and operation.[25] For buried or submerged structures, the treatment is similar to that of any other buried or submerged structure.

Galvanic systems offer the advantage of being easier to fit retrospectively, since the anodes are fitted on the concrete surface and do not need any control systems as ICCP does.

For pipelines constructed from pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), the techniques used for CP are generally as for steel pipelines except that there is a need to take steps to avoid an excessive level of potential that can produce cause possible damage to the prestressing wire [26]

The steel wire in a PCCP pipeline is stressed to the point that any corrosion of the wire can result in failure. An additional problem is that any excessive hydrogen ions as a result of an excessively negative potential can cause hydrogen embrittlement of the wire, also resulting in failure. The failure of too many wires will result in catastrophic failure of the PCCP.[27] To implement ICCP therefore requires very careful control to ensure satisfactory protection. A simpler option is to use galvanic anodes, which are self limiting and need no control.[28]

Internal CP

Vessels, pipelines and tanks which are used to store or transport liquids can also be protected from corrosion on their internal surfaces by the use of cathodic protection.[29] ICCP and galvanic systems can be used.[30]

Galvanized steel

Galvanizing generally refers to hot-dip galvanizing which is a way of coating steel with a layer of metallic zinc. Galvanized coatings are quite durable in most environments because they combine the barrier properties of a coating with some of the benefits of cathodic protection. If the zinc coating is scratched or otherwise locally damaged and steel is exposed, the surrounding areas of zinc coating form a galvanic cell with the exposed steel and protect it from corrosion. This is a form of localized cathodic protection - the zinc acts as a sacrificial anode.

It should be noted that galvanizing, while using the principle of cathodic protection, is not actually cathodic protection. CP requires the anode to be separate from the metal surface to be protected, with an ionic connection through the electrolyte and an electron connection through a connecting cable, bolt or similar. This means that any area of the protected structure within the electrolyte can be protected, whereas in the case of galvanizing, only areas very close to the zinc are protected. Hence, a larger area of bare steel would only be protected around the edges.


Electrochemical corrosion potential is measured with reference electrodes. Copper-copper(II) sulfate electrodes are used for structures in contact with soil or fresh water. Silver chloride electrodes or Saturated calomel electrodes (SCE) are used for seawater applications. The methods are described in [31] along with the sources of error[32] in the voltage that appears on the display of the meter. Interpretation of electrochemical corrosion potential measurements to determine the potential at the interface between the anode of the corrosion cell and the electrolyte requires training[33] and cannot be expected to match the accuracy of measurements done in laboratory work. It is widely recognized that errors can be introduced in all measurements where there is a lack of training.


Production of hydrogen ions

A side effect of improperly applied cathodic protection is the production of hydrogen ions, leading to its absorption in the protected metal and subsequent hydrogen embrittlement of welds and materials with high hardness. Under normal conditions, the ionic hydrogen will combine at the metal surface to create hydrogen gas, which cannot penetrate the metal. Hydrogen ions, however, are small enough to pass through the crystalline steel structure, and lead in some cases to hydrogen embrittlement.

Cathodic Disbonding

This is a process of disbondment of protective coatings from the protected structure (cathode) due to the formation of hydrogen ions over the surface of the protected material (cathode).[34] Disbonding can be exacerbated by an increase in alkali ions and an increase in cathodic polarization.[35] The degree of disbonding is also reliant on the type of coating, with some coatings affected more than others.[36] Cathodic protection systems should be operated so that the structure does not become excessively polarized,[37] since this also promotes disbonding due to excessively negative potentials. Cathodic disbonding occurs rapidly in pipelines that contain hot fluids because the process is accelerated by heat flow[citation needed].

Cathodic Shielding

Effectiveness of cathodic protection systems on steel pipelines can be impaired by the use of solid film backed dielectric coatings such as polyethylene tapes, shrinkable pipeline sleeves, and factory applied single or multiple solid film coatings. This phenomenon occurs because of the high electrical resistivity of these film backings.[38] Protective electric current from the cathodic protection system is blocked or shielded from reaching the underlying metal by the highly resistive film backing. Cathodic shielding was first defined in the 1980s as being a problem, and technical papers on the subject have been regularly published since then.

A 1999 report[39] concerning a 20,600 bbl (3,280 m3). spill from a Saskatchewan crude oil line contains an excellent definition of the cathodic shielding problem:

"The triple situation of disbondment of the (corrosion) coating, the dielectric nature of the coating and the unique electrochemical environment established under the exterior coating, which acts as a shield to the electrical CP current, is referred to as CP shielding. The combination of tenting and disbondment permits a corrosive environment around the outside of the pipe to enter into the void between the exterior coating and the pipe surface. With the development of this CP shielding phenomenon, impressed current from the CP system cannot access exposed metal under the exterior coating to protect the pipe surface from the consequences of an aggressive corrosive environment. The CP shielding phenomenon induces changes in the potential gradient of the CP system across the exterior coating, which are further pronounced in areas of insufficient or sub-standard CP current emanating from the pipeline's CP system. This produces an area on the pipeline of insufficient CP defense against metal loss aggravated by an exterior corrosive environment."

Cathodic shielding is referenced in a number of the standards listed below. Newly issued USDOT regulation Title 49 CFR 192.112, in the section for Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure requires that "The pipe must be protected against external corrosion by a non-shielding coating" (see coatings section on standard). Also, the NACE SP0169:2007 standard defines shielding in section 2, cautions against the use of materials that create electrical shielding in section 4.2.3, cautions against use of external coatings that create electrical shielding in section, and instructs readers to take 'appropriate action' when the effects of electrical shielding of CP current are detected on an operating pipeline in section 10.9.


  • 49 CFR 192.112 - Requirements for Corrosion Control - Transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline: minimum federal safety standards
  • ASME B31Q 0001-0191
  • ASTM G 8, G 42 - Evaluating Cathodic Disbondment resistance of coatings
  • DNV-RP-B401 - Cathodic Protection Design - Det Norske Veritas
  • EN 12068:1999 - Cathodic protection. External organic coatings for the corrosion protection of buried or immersed steel pipelines used in conjunction with cathodic protection. Tapes and shrinkable materials
  • EN 12473:2000 - General principles of cathodic protection in sea water
  • EN 12474:2001 - Cathodic protection for submarine pipelines
  • EN 12495:2000 - Cathodic protection for fixed steel offshore structures
  • EN 12499:2003 - Internal cathodic protection of metallic structures
  • EN 12696:2000 - Cathodic protection of steel in concrete
  • EN 12954:2001 - Cathodic protection of buried or immersed metallic structures. General principles and application for pipelines
  • EN 13173:2001 - Cathodic protection for steel offshore floating structures
  • EN 13174:2001 - Cathodic protection for harbor installations
  • EN 13509:2003 - Cathodic protection measurement techniques
  • EN 13636:2004 - Cathodic protection of buried metallic tanks and related piping
  • EN 14505:2005 - Cathodic protection of complex structures
  • EN 15112:2006 - External cathodic protection of well casing
  • EN 50162:2004 - Protection against corrosion by stray current from direct current systems
  • BS 7361-1:1991 - Cathodic Protection
  • NACE SP0169:2007 - Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
  • NACE TM 0497 - Measurement Techniques Related to Criteria for Cathodic Protection on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems

See also

External links


  1. Peabody p.6
  2. Davy, cited in Ashworth 1994
  3. Ashworth, 10:3
  4. Baeckmann, Schwenck & Prinz, p.12
  5. Scherer, 38(27), 179 cited in Baeckman
  6. Roberge p.871
  7. ASTM B843 - 07
  8. ASTM B418 - 09
  9. Peabody p.304
  10. Ashworth 10:10
  11. Roberge p.880
  12. Peabody p.22
  13. Peabody p.132
  14. Peabody p.32
  15. BS 7361-1:1991 Sect. 6.2
  16. BS 7361-1:1991 Sect.
  17. CP-2 Cathodic Protection Technician-Maritime Student Manual NACE International, July 2009, pg 3-11
  18. EN 12473:2000 Sect. 8.3.1
  19. Roberge p.876
  20. Ashworth et al 10:82
  21. Covino et al/
  22. Daily
  23. Highways Agency Sect. 4.8
  24. Highways Agency Sect. 2.1
  25. Highways Agency Sect. 4.5
  26. NACE RP0100-2000 Sect. 5.2.5
  27. Gummow
  28. NACE RP0100-2000 Sect. 5.4
  29. EN 12499:2003
  30. Ashworth et al 10:112
  31. NACE TM0497
  32. NACE TM0497 Section 5.8
  33. NACE TM0497 Section 1.2
  34. Roberge Sect. 11.4.1, p.886
  35. Baeckmann, Schwenck & Prinz, p.167
  36. Baeckmann, Schwenck & Prinz, p.168
  37. Peabody p.37
  38. NACE International Paper 09043
  39. Transportation Safety Board of Canada


  • A.W. Peabody, Peabody's Control of Pipeline Corrosion, 2nd Ed., 2001, NACE International. ISBN 1575900920
  • Davy, H., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 114,151,242 and 328 (1824)
  • Ashworth V., Corrosion Vol. 2, 3rd Ed., 1994, ISBN 0750610778
  • Baeckmann, Schwenck & Prinz, Handbook of Cathodic Corrosion Protection, 3rd Edition 1997. ISBN 0-88415-056-9
  • Scherer, L. F., Oil and Gas Journal, (1939)
  • ASTM B843 - 07 Standard Specification for Magnesium Alloy Anodes for Cathodic Protection
  • ASTM B418 - 09 Standard Specification for Cast and Wrought Galvanic Zinc Anodes
  • Roberge, Pierre R, Handbook of Corrosion Engineering 1999 ISBN 0-07-076516-2
  • NACE International Paper 09043 Coatings Used in Conjunction with Cathodic Protection - Shielding vs Non-shielding Coatings
  • NACE International TM0497-2002, Measurement Techniques Related to Criteria for Cathodic Protection on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
  • Transportation Safety Board of Canada, Report Number P99H0021, 1999 [1]
  • Covino, Bernard S, et al., Performance of Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Bridges, Oregon Dept of Transport & Federal Highway Administration, March 2002
  • UK Highways Agency BA 83/02; Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Vol.3, Sect.3, Part 3, Cathodic Protection For Use In Reinforced Concrete Highway Structures. [2] (Retrieved 2011-01-04)
  • Daily, Steven F, Using Cathodic Protection to Control Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Marine Environments (published in Port Technology International)
  • Gummow, RA, Corrosion Control of Municipal Infrastructure Using Cathodic Protection. NACE Conference Oct 1999, NACE Materials Performance Feb 2000
  • EN 12473:2000 - General principles of cathodic protection in sea water
  • EN 12499:2003 - Internal cathodic protection of metallic structures
  • NACE RP0100-2000 Cathodic Protection of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipelines
  • BS 7361-1:1991 - Cathodic Protection