Formation Damage Induced by Completion-Fluids and Crude-Oil Emulsions
Foxenberg et al. (1998) tested some blends of solvents and surfactants and demonstrated that certain blends are effective in providing compatibility between completion-fluids and crude-oils for gravel-packing applications.Polymer-specific damage associated with drilling, completion, stimulation, and workover operations can be treated by breaking long-chain molecules to short-chain molecules by means of suitable enzymatic degradation reactions. Filter-cake forming agents can be typically used to prevent the invasion of fines and filtrates of drilling muds and hydraulic fracturing fluids into the reservoir formation by forming an impermeable filter cake over the sand face.
Zhang et al. (1998) propose the use of alpha- and beta-methyl glucosides (MEG). These are chemical derivatives of glucose produced from corn starch and, therefore, are environmentally acceptable. These low interfacial tension pore-bridging substances can form low-permeability filter cakes over the sand face of low- and high-permeability formations.
Wettability Alteration and Emulsion and Water Blocks
Wettability change, converting the formation toward oil-wet condition, can be reversed using mutual solvent, blends of mutual solvent and surfactant, and surfactants (Thomas et al., 1998). Water external emulsions can be decomposed by aqueous solutions of mutual solvents, blends of solvents and surfactants, and alcohol and mutual solvent mixtures (Thomas et al., 1998). Oil external emulsions can be decomposed by means of the blends of aromatic and mutual solvents, such as toluene and xylene (Thomas et al., 1998). Water blocks can be removed using mutual solvents, blends of aromatic and mutual solvents, blends of alcohol and mutual solvents, and nonaqueous acedic acid containing 10% glacial acedic acid in diesel (Thomas et al., 1998).
Intense Heat Treatment
Jamaluddin et al. (1998) proposed intense heat treatment for enhancing the damaged near-wellbore formation by clay swelling and water block. They show that intense heat treatment works using several mechanisms. Intense heat application dehydrates the clays and destroys the clay lattices, vaporizes the blocked water, and creates microfractures by thermallyinduced stress generation in the near-wellbore region.
Stimulation by Hydraulic Fracturing
Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing is an effective technique for circumventing well damage. The productivity improvement is usually adversely affected because of the matrix damage by water block, fines invasion during leak-off, and clay swelling, especially in low permeability formations (Keelan and Koepf, 1977). However, the fractured-well productivity can be increased substantially using compatible fluids and properly selected leak-off control additives (Keelan and Koepf, 1977).
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