|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||58.04 g/mol|
15 °C, 288 K, 59 °F
51 °C, 324 K, 124 °F
|Specific heat capacity, C||1.044 J/k/g|
|Flash point||−4 °C, 269 K, 25 °F|
|285 °C, 558 K, 545 °F|
|Related aldehydes|| acetaldehyde|
|Related compounds|| glyoxylic acid|
| (what is: / ?) |
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Glyoxal is an organic compound with the formula OCHCHO. This yellow colored liquid is the smallest dialdehyde (two aldehyde groups). It is typically applied to paper and textile business as crosslinker for starch-based formulations and as a starting material with ureas for wrinkle-resistant chemical treatments.
Speciation in solution
Glyoxal is supplied typically as a 40% aqueous solution. Like other small aldehydes, glyoxal forms hydrates. Furthermore, the hydrates condense to give a series of oligomers, the structures of which remain uncertain. For most applications, the exact nature of the species in solution is inconsequential. At least two hydrates of glyoxal are sold commercially:
- glyoxal dimer, dihydrate: [(CHO)2]2[H2O]2, 1,4-dioxane-trans-2,3-diol (CAS# 4845-50-5, m.p. 91-95 C)
- glyoxal trimer, dihydrate: [(CHO)2]3(H2O)2 (CAS# 4405-13-4).
It is estimated that, at concentrations less than 1 M, glyoxal exists predominantly as the monomer or hydrates thereof, i.e., OCHCHO, OCHCH(OH)2, or (HO)2CHCH(OH)2. At concentrations >1 M, dimers predominate. These dimers are probably dioxolanes, with the formula [(HO)CH]2O2CHCHO. Dimer and trimer can precipitate, due to lower solubility, from solution at <40 F.
Properties as an H2S scavenger
- Glyoxal is effective and can be applied in neutral, acidic, and alkaline conditions (pH environment), where triazine is effective and stable only under alkaline conditions.
- An acidic formulation allows the product to avoid causing carbonate scaling. It can also be formulated with acid stimulation package to scavenge any potential H2S release.
- Glyoxal when diluted in water (pH below neutral) does not produce an increased quantity of formaldehyde as a by product, where MEA triazine does.
- Its reaction with H2S is much slower than triazine, especially at lower temperatures.
H2S scavenging test results
The following H2S scavenging results was presented by BASF, a glyoxal vendor.
- Script error
- Kelland, A.M. Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry