In subsea oil/gas production systems, a subsea jumper, as shown a short pipe connector that is used to transport production fluid between two subsea components, for example, a tree and a manifold, a manifold and another manifold, or a manifold and an export sled. It may also connect other subsea structures such as PLEM/PLETs and riser bases. In addition to being used to transport production fluid, a jumper can also be used to inject water into a well. The offset distance between the components (such as trees, flowlines, and manifolds) dictates the jumper length and characteristics. Flexible jumper systems provide versatility, unlike rigid jumper systems, which limit space and handling capability.
Well jumpers connect wells to manifolds. They are typically internally cladded with 3mm Inconel 625 to prevent corrosion.
Flowline jumpers are used to connect between subsea flowlines and manifolds. They are typically carbon steel with no cladding. The flowline jumpers typically have a minimum bend radius of 5D to allow pigging.
Infield jumpers are typically used to connect production centers together. They are typically much longer than well jumpers and flowline jumpers and are typically made of carbon steel. If pigging functionality is required, they also need to have minimum 5D bend radius.
Flow assurance implications
Because of the jumper geometry, water tends to accumulate at the low spots of the jumpers during shut-in when the temperature cools down. This combination of low temperature and water accumulation creates flow assurance risk with regards to hydrate formation. The jumpers need to be either dead oil displaced or treated methanol during shut-in to prevent hydrate blockage.
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